Reef Resilience: Building Resilience into Coral Reef Conservation
We are continually gathering publications useful to MPA practitioners. The table below includes papers and other documents downloadable from this website or from external sites. If you have documents and/or links you would like to contribute, please contact us.
The table's Type column categorizes the publication as MPA, Coral Reef, or both:
In addition to listing the publication, we have annotated most of the items. Click the "More|Less" links to expand or collapse an annotation. Click a column heading to sort the table by author, date, title, publication detail, or type.
|Adams, Thomas C. et al.||2011||Herbivory, Connectivity, and Ecosystem Resilience: Response of a Coral Reef to a Large-Scale Perturbation||PLoS ONE 6(8): e23717. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023717||Coral Reef||The purpose of this study was to identify processes that inhibit the shift from coral to algal dominance in some coral reefs following major disturbances. The role of herbivorous fish populations in the prevention of these phase shifts were specifically addressed. Experimental and observational data were conducted on reefs in Moorea, French Polynesia, where numerous perturbations of bleaching and cyclone events and an explosion in COTS caused major declines in coral cover, though no phase shifts occurred.
Results showed that herbivore assemblage on the forereef became increasingly dominated by parrotfish following the decline in live coral cover, with an increase from 22% of herbivore biomass in 2006 to 50% herbivore biomass in 2010. A near complete loss of coral was followed by a rapid and sustained increase in herbivore populations, particularly parrotfish, due to increases in benthic primary production. Parrotfish populations were able to respond to increased food availability on the forereef because their juvenile habitat in the nearby lagoons was unaffected by disturbances like the COTS outbreak. These findings support the role of connectivity between nearby reefs and habitats, as nearby habitats serving as nursery grounds enhance the resilience of coral reefs and should be a top management priority.
|Anthony, K.R.N. et al.||2011||Ocean acidification and warming will lower coral reef resilience||Global Change Biology 17, 1798-1808||Coral Reef||In this study, the authors quantitatively analyzed how different combinations of CO2 and fishing pressure on herbivores will affect the ecological resilience of a benthic reef community consisting of three common groups: branching corals, fleshy macroalgae and turfs (free space for coral and algal colonization). Resilience was defined by the community’s capacity to maintain and recover to coral-dominated states. They developed a dynamic community model that was run for changes in sea surface temperature and water chemistry predicted by the rise in atmospheric CO2 projected from the IPCC’s fossil-fuel intensive scenario during this century.. The findings demonstrate, using on the dynamics of a species pair of corals (Acropora) and fleshy macroalgae (Lobophora), that the effects of ocean acidification and warming on coral growth and mortality will have important impacts on coral reef resilience under increasing CO2. Specifically, by reducing coral growth (due to acidification) and survivorship (due to warming), increasing CO2 will lower the threshold value at which local and regional processes like herbivore overfishing and nutrification drive the study community from predominantly coral-dominated to predominantly algal-dominated states. Therefore, warming, acidification, overfishing and nutrification all drive the dynamics of the system in the same direction, suggesting that reduced coral resilience in a high-CO2 world is likely to be a consequence of both global threats and local-scale disturbances.||pdf, 729k|
|Armoza-Zvuloni, R. et al.||2011||Repeated bleaching events may result in high tolerance and notable gametogenesis in stony corals: Oculina patagonica as a model||Mar Ecol Prog Ser 426: 10pp||Coral Reef||In this study, the authors assessed the effect of bleaching on gametogenesis of populations of the coral Oculina patagonica commonly undergoing repeated seasonal bleaching events along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, and compared it with the effect of first and second summer bleaching events on gametogenesis of a population that has not experienced a summer bleaching events in recent years. They found that a population that experienced a summer BE for the first time presented significantly lower reproductive parameters in bleached colonies when compared to non-bleached colonies.
Furthermore, in the following year, such bleached colonies showed an improvement in reproductive performance when compared to the previous year. The remarkable differences in gametogenesis between colonies experiencing first summer bleaching events and those experiencing repeated seasonal bleaching events may be the result of improved utilization of alternative energy sources. This study provides the first evidence for notable gametogenesis in corals undergoing repeated bleaching, and suggests that adjustment processes may increase tolerance levels and may play a role in the ability of corals to overcome the expected repeated bleaching events.
The findings suggest that coral species with a high tolerance to bleaching may overcome some energetic barriers to reproduction and complete gametogenesis during periods of repeated seasonal BEs. These species could become the dominant coral species on reefs and may help to prevent the loss of coral cover and phase shifts from a coral to an algae-dominated community.
|Arnold, S.N. and R.S. Steneck||2011||Settling into an Increasingly Hostile World: The Rapidly Closing ‘‘Recruitment Window’’ for Corals||PLoS ONE 5(5): e10437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010437||Coral Reef||In this study, researchers examined the effect of benthic organisms on coral recruitment and early post-settlement survivorship on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef over three years. Using terra cotta settlement plates to mimic substrate on coral reefs, researchers found that a ‘coral recruitment window’ may exist during which benthic composition is optimal for settlement. Additionally, results showed that coral recruits preferentially settle on biofilms, calcareous polychaete tubes, and crustose coralline algae, and that recruitment inhibitors like encrusting sponges may be limiting coral recruitment and early survival. This poses a threat to Caribbean reefs as encrusting sponges are growing in prominence in these reef systems.
Additionally, the study confirmed that recruitment of new corals in Caribbean reefs is drastically low; regardless of settlement substrate, only 10 percent of recruits survived during the course of this 3-year study.
|Barshis, Daniel J. et al.||2013||Genomic basis for coral resilience to climate change||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), Volume 110, No 4, doi/10.1073/pnas.1210224110||Coral Reef||This research study seeks to explain coral resilience to heat stress by looking at differences in genes that are expressed in heat tolerant (resilient) versus heat sensitive corals (of the same species). Authors simulated bleaching stress and used DNA-sequencing to determine genes expressed in heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive corals during no-stress and stress periods.
Results indicate heat-resilient corals have 60 genes that constantly make products to help with heat stress, even during no-stress periods (an activity called “frontloading”) and that this is acquired from natural exposure to extremes of heat stress. This study further supports managing or protecting corals that experience constant natural stress, as they may be more tolerant and resilient to future climate change impacts.
|Beeden R. et al.||2012||A Framework for Responding to Coral Disease Outbreaks that Facilitates Adaptive Management||Environmental Management 49:1–13. DOI 10.1007/s00267-011-9770-9||Coral Reef||In this study, investigators develop and present a framework for responding to coral disease outbreaks with implications for reef ecosystem health. The framework contains four components, including an early warning system, a tiered impact assessment program, scaled management actions, and a communication plan.
A combination of predictive tools with in situ observations of areas at risk for disease outbreak constitute the early warning system, while reports of increasing disease prevalence triggers a tiered response of assessment, research, or management actions. Response to the disease outbreak risk is scaled based on the severity and spatial extent of impacts incurred by a disease outbreak to coral species.
Additionally, the study reviews potential management actions to mitigate coral disease impacts and facilitate recovery of the reef ecosystem, and considers coral disease-specific strategies as well as strategies already used in reef resilience.
|Bellwood, David R. et al.||2006||Coral bleaching, reef fish community phase shifts and the resilience of coral reefs||Global Change Biology 12: 1587-1594||Coral Reef||The 1998 coral bleaching event, the largest coral reef disturbance on historic record, caused dramatic habitat loss. Annual censuses that spanned both before and after the bleaching event (from 1993 to 2004) in the central Great Barrier Reef were reported here. The authors found no difference in species richness, diversity (H’), and total abundance over the 12 year period, providing results contrary to other long-term studies. These results demonstrate the difficulty in measuring coral reef resilience and the need for accurate metrics.||external site|
|Botsford, Louis W. et al.||2003||Principles for the Design of Marine Reserves||Ecological Applications 13: S25-S31||MPA||Useful to marine reserve designers, this paper by Botsford et al. describes four principles that address the following two questions: (1) how will the outcome of marine reserves compare to conventional fishery management through size limits and effort control, and (2) how does the nature of movement of the species we are trying to protect affect the design of marine reserves. The four principles are, as follows: reserves increase yield similar to increasing size limits and decreasing mortality, preserving biodiversity is most effective in reserves with low rates of juvenile and adult movements while fishery management is most effective with intermediate rates of adult movement, and larger fractions of coastlines are necessary for protected species with higher dispersal distances.||pdf, 72k|
|Burkepile, D. E. and M. E. Hay||2010||Impact of Herbivore Identity on Algal Succession and Coral Growth on a Caribbean Reef||PLoS One (5)1: e8963||Coral Reef||This study conducted two experiments over two years to evaluate how herbivore identity and species richness affected the recruitment and primary succession of algal communities and the cascading effects on coral growth. Equal densities and masses of either single-species or mixed-species of herbivorous fishes were enclosed in replicate, 4 m2 cages at a depth of 17 m on a reef in the Florida Keys, and algal community development and coral growth on new substrates was monitored.|
Findings showed that for communities undergoing primary succession (similar to new substrates created following coral death from bleaching, disease, or storm damage), strong species-specific effects of herbivores limit the abundance of late-successional algae and facilitate early successional species such as filamentous algal turfs. Herbivore richness effects were strong on established communities due to complementarity feeding among fish species; this complementary feeding not only impacted seaweeds, but also enhanced coral survivorship and growth. Species-specific effects of herbivorous fishes suggest that a species-rich herbivore fauna can be critical in providing the resilience that reefs need for recovery from common disturbances such as coral bleaching and storm damage.
|Ceccarelli, D.M. et al.||2011||Interactions between herbivorous fish guilds and their influence on algal succession on a coastal coral reef||Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 339(1): 60-67||Coral Reef||In this study, the effects of different herbivore groups (roving herbivores, such as parrotfishes, surgeonfishes and rabbitfishes =”foragers” and territorial damselfish = “farmers”) were isolated by a experiment carried out on a coastal coral reef with high macroalgal cover, high farmer densities and relatively low forager abundance. The effects of foragers and farmers were distinguished by monitoring algal succession on settlement tiles placed inside and outside exclusion cages, inside and outside damselfish territories. Over the course of 12 months, succession on caged tiles outside territories included an early stage dominated by filamentous algae, a later stage with corticated and fleshy macroalgae, which were then replaced by calcified algae. Succession on uncaged tiles inside territories remained dominated by filamentous algae. Thus, farmers had a dramatic impact on succession, essentially stopping the development of the algal community at a point where it was dominated by palatable filamentous algae of the genus Polysiphonia. The relatively strong effects of farmers observed in this study may represent a future scenario for coral reefs that are increasingly subject to overfishing of large grazing fishes.||pdf, 610k|
|Cetina-Heredia, P. and S.R. Connolly||2011||A simple approximation for larval retention around reefs||Coral Reefs DOI: 10.1007/s00338-011-0749-z||Coral Reef||Estimating larval retention at individual reefs by local scale three-dimensional flows is a concern for managers trying to understand and predict larval dispersal. This study models variation in larval retention times for a range of reef shapes and circulation regimes, using a reef-scale three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. It also explores how well larval retention time can be estimated from flow speed around the reef, reef dimension, and vertical diffusion. The mean residence times found in the study (0.48–5.64 days) indicate substantial potential for self-recruitment of species whose larvae are passive, or weak swimmers, for the first several days after release. These findings suggest that good estimates of larval retention may be obtained from relatively coarse-scale characteristics of the flow, and basic features of reef geomorphology.||pdf, 864k|
|Cheal, Alistair J. et al.||2013||Spatial variation in the functional characteristics of herbivorous fish communities and the resilience of coral reefs||Ecological Applications 23(1); 174–188||Coral Reef||This study explores the importance of herbivore functional roles and their diversity and abundance when predicting coral reef resilience to undesirable phase-shifts to algal-dominated reefs. Authors looked at reef slopes on 92 reefs through the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Results showed 11 reefs resisted phase shifts after disturbance, however without high herbivore function. This data suggests other environmental factors may compensate for herbivores that enhance reef resilience, specifically including water clarity and quality. Authors of this study argue spatially explicit strategies should consider both the functional characteristics of local herbivore communities and environmental factors in order to create lower resilience thresholds.||pdf, 803k|
|Cinner, J.E. et al.||2011||Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheries||Global Environmental Change doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.09.018||Coral Reef||This study addresses the lack of current scientific work focussing on the social vulnerability of fisheries-dependent communities in the context of climate change-related impacts to coral reefs. Researchers examine exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity, as dimensions of vulnerability to the impacts of coral bleaching on fishery returns, in 29 coastal communities near the western Indian Ocean. A network-based approach is developed to determine sensitivity to fishery changes by looking at links of fishery and non-fishery jobs.
Results showed that vulnerability differed considerably depending on the site, with Kenya having the highest overall vulnerability at a national scale, followed by Tanzania, Madagascar, Seychelles, and Mauritius. At the site level, Sahamalaza in Madagascar had the highest vulnerability, although seven of the ten most vulnerable sites occurred in Kenya. This study concludes with a framework of local, national, and international-scale policy actions to reduce different aspects of vulnerability.
|Claudet, J. et al.||2006||Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve||Biological Conservation 130: 349-369||MPA||Claudet et al. evaluate how reef fish assemblages respond to a no-take reserve as compared to a non-managed site, accounting for habitat variability. This paper provides incite as to how one may want to test MPA effectiveness and identify indicator species. Indicator species monitoring may prove to be a cost effective management technique. They used an underwater visual census (UVC) technique and modeled their data to account for both spatial and temporal variations between the inside and outside of the MPA. Useful for individuals evaluating monitoring methods for MPAs.||pdf, 308k|
|Connolly, Sean R. et al.||2005||Community Structure of Corals and Reef Fishes at Multiple Scales||Science 309: 1363-1365||Coral Reef||Community structure in scleractinan corals and labrid reef fish are assessed in the Central Indo-Pacific Ocean by examining 100 sites along a 10,000 km transect. Since these corals and reef fish are “principal structural-formers and major consumers, respectively,” these groups can assist in understanding present and future biodiversity. The results support the null hypothesis model that species-abundance distributions are a result of environmental and demographic factors. This paper has implications for coral reef management, including the need to address broad scale processes and potentially take a seascape approach to conservation.||pdf, 276k|
|Diaz-Pulido, G. et al.||2011||High CO2 enhances the competitive strength of seaweeds over corals||Ecology Letters 14: 156-162||Coral Reef||This study presents the case that increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may be an additional process driving a shift from corals to seaweeds on reefs. The authors tested the combined effects of ocean acidification and algal–coral competition on coral survivorship and growth through simultaneous manipulation of competitors and CO2 levels in an experiment carried out on Heron Island Research Station (HIRS), southern GBR.
In the experiments, the authors demonstrate that ocean acidification enhances the ability of a common algae (Lobophora) to kill, and potentially out-compete, a coral (Acropora). Only corals in contact with live seaweeds showed significant mortality, and mortality was exacerbated by elevated pCO2. This indicates that coral mortality can be attributed to the presence of, and interaction with, seaweeds. Accordingly, increased coral mortality with increasing pCO2 is therefore likely to be a consequence of CO2, enhancing the competitive strength of the seaweeds.
These results suggest that coral (Acropora) reefs may become increasingly susceptible to seaweed proliferation under ocean acidification, and processes regulating algal abundance (e.g. herbivory) will play an increasingly important role in maintaining coral abundance.
|Donner, Simon D. et al.||2005||Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change||Global Change Biology 11: 2251-2265||Coral Reef||The authors of this paper conducted a global assessment of coral bleaching by adapting the NOAA Coral Reef Watch bleaching predation method. The results of their model suggest that most coral reefs will be exposed to annual or biannual bleaching events and will need to increase the thermal tolerance of their symbionts by 0.5-1° in the next 30-50 years based on minimum levels of warming. When moderate estimates of warming are made (based on increased emissions) total thermal adaptation may exceed possible level. Therefore, emissions play an important role in determining the likelihood for coral reef persistence.||pdf, 916k|
|Friedlander, A. M. et al.||2003||Effects of habitat, wave exposure, and marine protected area status on coral reef fish assemblages in the Hawaiian archipelago||Coral Reefs 22: 291-305||Coral Reef||This study installed and surveyed 30 permanent sites replicated at two depths off Kauai, Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Kahoolawe, and Hawaii. These sites varied in numerous ways including depth, habitat complexity, coral cover growth forms, and degrees of marine protection. Both environmental parameters and management regimes impacted the characteristics of fish assemblages. For example, rugosity, live lobate coral cover, and areas protected from fishing influenced species richness. Additionally, location within the protected areas also explained variation in species richness, biomass, and diversity. This paper has implications for marine reserve design and stresses the importance of considering habitat requirements, life histories, and fishing pressure when designing reserves. Areas with diverse habitats that can support a variety of fish species are also likely to be effective. The paper is of particular importance to MPA designers.||external site|
|Gardner, Toby A. et al.||2005||Hurricanes and Caribbean Coral Reefs: Impacts, Recovery Patterns, and role in Long-term Decline||Ecology 86: 174-184||Coral Reef||This paper is arguably the first quantitative evaluation of short and longer term responses to hurricanes throughout the Caribbean. The authors conduct meta-analyses that include 67 separate studies representing 286 Caribbean reef sites surveyed for variable periods of time between 1980 and 2001. Of these studies 177 of the sites experienced hurricanes during the monitoring period. Results of the analyses indicate that coral cover declines by as much as 17% during the year immediately following the hurricane. Decline is then typically temporarily halted and then continues to decline similar to or at a faster rate than background rates. Coral loss was also greater in areas that were less frequently impacted by hurricanes, while more frequently impacted areas likely did not have time to build up as much coral to begin with. The authors report no evidence of coral recovery following hurricanes or within a time period similar to hurricane frequency.||pdf, 220k|
|Garpe, Kajsa C. et al.||2006||Long-term effects of the 1998 coral bleaching event on reef fish assemblages||Marine Ecology Progress Series 315: 237-247||Coral Reef||This paper examined the effects of the 1998 coral bleaching event on fish assemblages by measuring fish abundance, taxonomic richness, and functional group abundances (i.e. obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores, coral dwellers, benthic invertebrate feeders, roving herbivores, territorial herbivores). These variables were compared to habitat and site differences over time. Initially, the authors saw a significant increase in total abundance and taxonomic richness after only 6 months in one site. However, both measures decreased at both sites after 6 years. These discrepancies indicate the need for long term monitoring. Additionally, the long term declines experienced by both sites post bleaching create cause for concern for the long term impacts of bleaching on coral reef communities.||external site|
|Goulet, Tamara L.||2006||Most corals may not change their symbionts||Marine Ecology Progress Series 321: 1-7||Coral Reef||This paper tests the hypothesis that corals can adapt to climate change by exchanging algal types. Data from 43 studies including 442 coral species (stony coral and octocoral) documents that only a minority of coral species are able to change symbionts. The majority of coral species are host to only one zooxanthella clade, and this clade does not change over time. Additionally, these corals do not change algal clades with additional stressors or when transplanted in different environments. Therefore, the majority of coral species do not appear to exhibit algal switching. This paper suggesting that only a small subset of symbiotic corals will survive if global warming continues.||pdf, 560k|
|Graham, N.A.J. et al.||2001||Coral reef recovery dynamics in a changing world||Coral Reefs Doi: 10.1007/s00338-010-0717-z||Coral Reef||The authors quantitatively reviewed the literature (55 studies in total) on the recovery rates of coral reef ecosystems from acute disturbance events among 48 different reef locations (from western Indian Ocean, to eastern Pacific and the Caribbean) and assessed which characteristics promote faster recovery rates. Specifically, the authors tested the relative roles of disturbance characteristics, reef characteristics, connectivity and anthropogenic influences. The main purpose was to understand the factors that drive inter-reef variations in recovery trajectories. Information on ecological characteristics thought to be important for recovery were assessed including: coral diversity, percent cover of different life-forms, structural complexity, fish diversity, density and biomass (including densities of different functional groups and algal cover).
The authors found that of those reefs that have been recovering from acute disturbances (and thus are resilient), the greatest predictors of rate of recovery were geographic region, management status and severity of disturbance. Coral recovery was slowest in the eastern Pacific and fastest in the western Pacific (higher functional diversity of corals and fish in the western Pacific is thought to promote capacity to recover). The study found no evidence of small-scale connectivity, as measured as distance to nearest reef and number of neighbor reefs, influencing recovery rates. However, distance may not always capture variation among locations affectively. There was evidence of slower recovery rates within protected areas compared with other management regimes and fished areas. It is important to note that potential predictors of recovery like herbivore biomass, fish functional diversity and habitat structural complexity were not document in the studies evaluated. A better understanding of these processes may enable more appropriate management actions.
|Grimsditch, Gabriel D. and Rodney V. Salm||2005||Coral Reef Resilience and Resistance to Bleaching||Produced by the IUCN World Conservation Union||MPA||A comprehensive overview and synthesis of coral bleaching and potential effects of climate change, discussions regarding the meaning of resistance and resilience, and future research opportunities are presented here. This papers reviews initiatives that are working on coral reef resilience and provides information on tools and management strategies. Additionally, a comprehensive glossary of relevant terms is provided. This document is an invaluable resource for MPA practitioners.||pdf, 1,900k|
|Grottoli, Andréa G. et al.||2006||Heterotrophic plasticity and resilience in bleached corals||Nature 440: 1186-1189||Coral Reef||This paper aims to understand the mechanisms responsible for differential success of various coral species after bleaching. The following species were examined: branching corals including Montipora capitata and Porites compressa, and the mounding coral Porites lobata. Results indicate that M. capitata was more resilient to bleaching as they were able to meet their daily metabolic energy requirements by increasing feeing rates and percent contribution of heterotrophically acquired carbon to daily animal respiration (CHAR). Therefore, high CHAR capabilities may be contributing to higher coral resilience to bleaching events. Frequent bleaching may also select for higher CHAR capabilities in the future.||external site|
|Halpern, Benjamin S. and Robert R. Warner||2003||Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives||Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 270: 1871-1878||MPA||Halpern et al. discuss various stakeholder interests and suggest potential reserve designs that meet the needs of both conservation efforts and stakeholders. Management for ecotourism and conservation should enclose genetically diverse populations and contain between 30-50% of the management area. Sport fishers can benefit from spillover of fishes from reserves that are large enough to maintain sport fish but small enough to allow spillover. Commercial fisherman need larval export to occur and will likely benefit from a network of reserves. Choices regarding reserve size and spacing requires the consideration of impacted stakeholders. When considering stakeholders and conservation goals, the use of the best science available, continued monitoring, and adaptive management should prove beneficial.||pdf, 360k|
|Halpern, B. S. et al.||2010||Placing marine protected areas onto the ecosystem-based management seascape||PNAS Early Edition||MPA||Despite the important overlap and common goals between marine protected areas (MPAs) and marine ecosystem-based management (EBM), the two approaches have remained separated in conservation and management efforts. The authors of this paper explore the role and limitations of marine reserves and other types of MPAs in achieving a key EBM role - to reduce cumulative impacts. The paper provides scientific guidance regarding the use of MPAs within an EBM approach and evaluates the potential for marine reserves to achieve specific EBM goals at global and regional scales.||pdf, 1,256k|
|Hicks, C.C. and McClanahan, T.R.||2012||Assessing Gear Modifications Needed to Optimize Yields in a Heavily Exploited, Multi-Species, Seagrass and Coral Reef Fishery||PLoS ONE doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036022||Coral Reef||This article addresses the need for increased gear-based management in coral reef and seagrass fisheries, as it has the potential to be adaptive, address multiple objectives, and have many socio-economic applications. Ten years of species-specific fish data from Kenya was used to evaluate fishery statuses of specific fish species, compare gear use and regulations and determine potential future gear restrictions.
The authors found that relatively few species contribute the majority of fisheries yield in this area, most being fully exploited, and that mesh sizes below legal limits and prohibited gears were being used. Increased enforcement of gears and gear management could be targeted to alleviate pressure on the life history stages most susceptible to overfishing. This article provides management recommendations for potential further restrictions on net mesh sizes and prohibited gears in order to help increase fisheries yields and protect slow life history traits in Kenyan fisheries.
|Hoegh-Guldberg, O. et al.||2007||Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification||Science 318: 1737-1742||Coral Reef||Levels of atmospheric CO2 continues to rise and threaten coral reefs globally. This is because atmospheric CO2 reacts with water in the ocean to produce carbonic acid which in turn forms bicarbonate ions that react with carbonate ions to produce more bicarbonate ions (reducing availability of carbonate in the ocean). Declines in available carbonate can reduce the calcification of coral reefs and marine organisms. The authors describe the consequences of increased atmospheric CO2 and subsequent warming, as predicted. Even under the best case scenario, ocean acidification will likely cause contractions of carbonate coral reefs if CO2 levels exceed 500ppm. Although these global threats require changes at a global scale, local factors such as poor water quality, coastal pollution, and overexploitation of certain organisms, should be reduced to lesson the overall stressors to coral reef communities. The authors also suggest that healthy grazing populations should help to improve a coral reefs ability to bounce back from future disturbances; thus, healthy herbivore populations should be managed for explicitly.||external site|
|Hoeke, R.K. et al.||2011||Projected Changes to Growth and Mortality of Hawaiian Corals over the Next 100 Years||PLoS ONE 6(3): e18038. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018||Coral Reef||This study investigates the use of modeling techniques to quantitatively examine rates of coral cover change due to these effects. Broad-scale probabilities of change in shallow-water reef-building coral cover in the Hawaiian Archipelago for years 2000–2099 were calculated using a single middle of the range of future greenhouse gas emissions scenario.
Model results suggest that under a regime of warming temperatures over the 21st century, mean growth rates of surviving corals have a high likelihood of increasing significantly towards the northernmost end of the Hawaiian Archipelago (e.g. Kure, Midway, Pearl and Hermes Atolls); increasing to a lesser degree towards the center of the chain (e.g. Maro Reef, French Frigate Shoals) and remain roughly stable to the South (the main Hawaiian Islands and Johnston). However, the contribution of increasing growth rates to increasing coral cover will most likely be more than offset by mortality associated with increasing incidence of episodic heat stress events (coral bleaching), especially in the northern end of the archipelago, where projected probabilities of episodic mortality are much higher.
If Hawaiian corals are not able to increase their tolerance to future levels of heat stress, model output suggests it is extremely unlikely that viable coral populations will exist in the shallow waters of the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2100. Despite large uncertainties, the analysis quantitatively illustrates that a large decline in coral cover is highly likely in the 21st Century, but that there are significant spatial and temporal variances in outcomes, even under a single climate change scenario.
|Hughes, Terance P. et al.||2005||New paradigms for supporting the resilience of marine ecosystems||Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 380-386||MPA||This review article discusses the emergence of a multi-system approach for MPA management including managing for social-ecological resilience. Hughes et al. discuss the need to move towards a new framework of adaptive governance that does the following: embraces uncertainty and change, builds knowledge of resources and ecosystem dynamics, develops management practices that can measure and respond to ecological feedbacks, and that can be flexible enough to manage at local to international levels. Additionally, this paper has 80 citations that may be of interest to MPA practitioners.||pdf, 248k|
|Hughes, T.P. et al.||2010||Rising to the challenge of sustaining coral reef resilience||Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 633-642||Coral Reef|
|Johnson, M.E. et al.||2011||Caribbean Acropora Restoration Guide: Best Practices for Propagation and Population Enhancement||The Nature Conservancy||Coral Reef||This practical guide for coral reef managers and practitioners provides best practice methods for Acropora coral restoration projects to ensure maximum propagation and survival. This guide, which is based on scientific, in-field experiences gathered by Nature Conservancy staff and partners, begins with a detailed account of the case for restoration activities to increase the population of acroporid corals.
It provides in-depth detail into the biology of acroporid corals, best practices for coral gardening methodology, including coral fragment collection, nursery set-up and operations, and coral propagule out-plant practices. It also includes several case studies from throughout the Caribbean region on documented successes and lessons learned. This guidebook is the complete summary of current, up-to-date science on coral restoration.
|Jones, Geoffrey P. et al.||2004||Coral decline threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves||PNAS 101: 8251-8253||Coral Reef,
|Marine reserves are traditionally thought to be able to protect fish from exploitation; however,“top down” management preventing the exploitation of reef fishes may not be enough. This 8-years study conducted in Papua New Guinea documents dramatic declines in fish populations, beyond predicted levels based on obligate coral reef associations. Declines in fish diversity occurred in approximately 75% of fish species surveyed and no difference was seen between the marine reserve areas and those lacking protection. Because few fish species are exploited in this area, these declines are likely due to habitat degradation. This paper is a call to arms for not just “top down” protection against human predators but the need for management strategies to address “bottom-up” processes (e.g. global warming, habitat change due to terrestrial run-off).||pdf, 268k|
|Logan, Cheryl A. et al.||2012||A framework for comparing coral bleaching thresholds||Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia, 9-13 July 2012
10A Modelling reef futures
|Coral Reef||The authors found that the “MMMmax” method for predicting bleaching has the highest predictive power at all spatial and temporal resolutions. Coral reef managers who subscribe to NOAA’s Coral Reef Watch can better rely on real-time bleaching alerts.||pdf, 549k|
|Lundgren, I. and Z. Hillis-Starr||2008||Variation in Acropora palmata bleaching across benthic zones at Buck Island Reef National Monument (St. Croix, USVI) during the 2005 thermal stress event||Bulletin of Marine Science 83: 441-451||Coral Reef|
|Maynard, J.A. et al.||2010||Building resilience into practical conservation: identifying local management responses to global climate change in the southern Great Barrier Reef||Coral Reefs 29: 381-391||Coral Reef|
|Maina, Joseph et al.||2011||Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management||PLoS ONE 6(8): e23064. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023064||Coral Reef||In this study, researchers aimed to identify global spatial gradients of thermal and eutrophication stressors, and the key factors that reduce these stressors, to develop a broad-scale metric of environmental exposure for coral reefs. Main considerations of this research included assessing which stressors corals are most exposed to in their respective locations and how these stresses interact with reinforcing and reducing variables. Researchers used combinations of stressors and used them to evaluate 12 oceanic provinces. Results of this study indicated that corals in all 12 provinces were highly exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, with spatial variability within regions. Results also showed that sedimentation and eutrophication are common in all regions but differ in intensity and co-occurrence with radiation and reducing stressors. Despite radiation stress being dominant, most reef locations are expected to be less severely affected if sedimentation and eutrophication are managed. Effective local management requires moving reefs that are moderately exposed to climate related stress towards low reinforcing conditions through improved water quality.||pdf, 1,290k|
|McClanahan, T.R.||2011||Human and coral reef use interactions: From impacts to solutions?||JEMBES 408: 3-10. Doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2011.07.021||Coral Reef||This article reviews current scientific preferences in coral reef research to determine if information needed to solve problems associated with coral reef and reef fisheries persistence is being generated. The review finds that recommendations for reef management are limited to eliminating or reducing impacts, reducing human populations and effort, and creating no-take MPAs, and that these solutions are rarely investigated for their social tradeoffs or complexities.
The review found that most scientific efforts focus on ecological impacts of global and anthropogenic stresses (250 articles in a Scopus search) rather than problem solving or solutions to threats posed to coral reef conservation (16 journal articles in the same Scopus search replacing the word ‘impact’ with ‘solution’).
By examining the current literature for several factors including social-ecological impacts, management restrictions, values and tradeoffs, the review calls for more solution-oriented research and gives recommendations in order to generate increased engagement in problem solving impact-related scientific careers.
|McClanahan, T.R. et al.||2012||Heterogeneity in fishers’ and managers’ preferences towards management restrictions and benefits in Kenya||Environmental Conservation 39 (4): 357-369 doi: 10.1017/S0376892912000197||MPA||402 people (including 19 managers) from 22 landing sites were surveyed in Coastal Kenya about their views of management regulations of fishing and perceived personal costs versus benefits from management actions. The more frequent significant factor was the perceived disparity between the benefits of management actions for the individual fishers or their communities, and the benefits to the government. The most supported management action consisted of gear restrictions, and the least supported was area closures. The study concludes that management should be planned at multiple scales, where local management is a mixture of top-down approaches (such as gear and minimum-size restrictions) and local by-laws (such as closures).||pdf, 1.1M|
|McClanahan, Timothy R. et al.||2006||A Comparison of Marine Protected Areas and Alternative Approaches to Coral-Reef Management||Current Biology 16: 1408-1413||MPA||An objective look at different types of MPAs and their effectiveness in conserving reef resources, the results reveal that three of the four sites that demonstrated greater average size and biomass of fishes within managed areas than outside of MPAs were self-governing traditional management regimes. This study also examines socioeconomic variables at each site and their relationship to MPA outcomes. This paper emphasizes the importance of considering local socioeconomic factors and working with communities to develop appropriate adaptive regulations in order to improve MPA effectiveness.||pdf, 92k|
|Meissner, K. J. et al.||2012||Large-scale stress factors affecting coral reefs: open ocean sea surface temperature and surface seawater aragonite saturation over the next 400 years||Coral Reefs DOI 10.1007/s00338-011-0866-8||Coral Reef||This study seeks to investigate three IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) representative pathways (RCP) and their differing impacts of environmental stressors to coral reefs including rising sea surface temperatures and changes in seawater aragonite saturation, which relates to atmospheric carbon and ocean acidification.
A climate model, the UVic Earth System Climate Model, was used in this study to predict sea surface temperatures, open water aragonite saturation levels, and susceptibility of coral reefs to thermal stress over the next 400 years. Results of this work showed that by year 2030, 66–85% of the reef locations considered will become ‘thermally marginal’ and experience severe bleaching events at least once every 10 years.
Regardless of which RCP concentration was used in researcher’s simulations, virtually every reef considered in this study (97%) would experience severe thermal stress by 2050. Study simulations also showed that annual mean seawater aragonite thresholds will be exceeded within the first half of this century.
|Miller, J. et al.||2009||Coral disease following massive bleaching in 2005 causes 60% decline in coral cover on reefs in the US Virgin Islands||Coral Reefs 28: 925-927||Coral Reef|
|Micheli, F. et al.||2012||Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts||PLoS ONE 7(7):e40832. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040832||MPA||In this study of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, the authors examined the effects of marine reserves on the population of an abalone after a mass mortality event. After widespread death of the economically valuable pink abalone, Haliotis corrugata (possibly as a result of climate-driven hypoxia), juvenile replenishment stayed stable within marine reserves. The local protection of the marine reserve provided resilience and faster recovery for the pink abalone populations due to large body size and high egg production of adults within the reserves.
This study contributes much-needed empirical evidence to support the establishment of marine protected areas as a valuable management tool for local communities.
|Mora, Camilo et al.||2006||Coral Reefs and the Global Network of Marine Protected Areas||Science 312: 1750-1751||MPA||Mora et al. provide a critique of MPA networks globally. Based on prior work that suggests MPAs be at least 10km2 and 15km apart, we need 2559 additional MPAs. These results demonstrate the need for more MPAs of quality that can help protect species within their ranges and be close enough together that larval dispersal between MPAs can occur.||external site|
|Mumby, Peter J. et al.||2006||Fishing, trophic cascades, and the process of grazing on coral reefs||Science 311: 98-101||Coral Reef,
|Mumby and others examine the critical question, “How does predation impact herbivorous fish populations and subsequent grazing intensity within non-fished marine reserves?” Using the Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park, with a fishing ban enforced since 1986, the authors quantified the impacts of no-take marine reserves on Montastraea reefs at a variety of spatial scales. The authors found that there was significant variation in community structure of parrotfishes between the reserve and non-reserve reefs. In short, smaller (bodied) species parrotfish were smaller in the reserve but there was no change in abundance, while larger-bodied species parrotfish did not exhibit size differences but were nearly double within the reserve. Larger bodied parrotfish appeared to escape predation and contributed significantly to increasing grazing intensity, reducing macroalgal cover within the reserve. This work has implications for managing no-take reserves and documents the benefits of required enforcement, despite contrary theoretical arguments.||external site|
|Mumby, Peter J. et al.||2007||Trophic cascade facilitates coral recruitment in a marine reserve||PNAS 104: 8362-8367||MPA||This study examined whether or not grazing by fishes determined macroalgal cover, which in turn influences the recruitment of coral species on Caribbean reefs. The authors based their study in the Bahamas and included the Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park (ECLSP). The authors found that grazing positively influenced the density and community structure of coral recruits, demonstrating that marine reserves can do more than just protect fish communities. The study described a relationship in which the more grazing done by fish, specifically parrotfish, the more substrate available for recruiting corals and thus, more coral recruits. In fact, they found a two-fold increase in coral recruitment associated with high levels of grazing inside the ECLSP. This study supports one of the key aspects of enhancing resilience by advocating for management of grazers.||external site|
|Mumby, Peter J. and Alastair R. Harborne||2010||Marine Reserves Enhance the Recovery of Corals on Caribbean Reefs||PLoS ONE 5(1): e8657||Coral Reef, MPA||The results of this study demonstrate that reserves can enhance coral recovery. In this study, the authors evaluated coral population dynamics to determine if reductions in macroalgal cover, caused by recovery of herbivorous parrotfishes in a reserve result in a faster recovery rate of coral than in areas open to fishing pressure. Looking at 10 sites inside and outside a Bahamian reserve over 2. 5 years, they found that macroalgal cover was significantly negatively correlated with the change in total coral cover over time and that increases in coral cover were significantly higher at the reserve sites than in the non-reserve sites. This study provide justification that the conservation of herbivores inside marine reserves can benefit coral recovery and build coral resilience.||external site|
|Nakamura M. et al.||2011||Coral Larvae under Ocean Acidification: Survival, Metabolism, and Metamorphosis||PLoS ONE 6(1): e14521. doi:10.1371/journal.pone||Coral Reef||The authors examined the metabolism of coral larvae under different pH conditions to explain the observed, uniform, survival rate of coral larvae under different pH conditions: pH 8.0 (control), pH 7.6, and pH 7.3. Larvae of Acropora digitifera was used in the study because it is a common species around Okinawan coral reefs and also the most commonly used species in studies on the effects of acidified seawater on several early life stages in coral. They also observed larval metamorphosis after both short (2 h) and long (7 d) term exposure to reduced pH conditions. The authors found that the oxygen consumption of Acropora digitifera larvae tended to be suppressed with reduced pH. Results also showed that the metamorphosis rate significantly decreased under acidified seawater conditions after both short (2 h) and long (7 d) term exposure. These results imply that acidified seawater impacts larval physiology, suggesting that suppressed metabolism and metamorphosis may alter the dispersal potential of larvae and subsequently reduce the resilience of coral communities in the near future as the ocean pH decreases.||external site|
|Noble, Mae M. et al.||2013||Community Change within a Caribbean Coral Reef Marine Protected Area following Two Decades of Local Management||PLoS ONE 8(1): e54069. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054069||Coral Reef||Authors of this study examine effects of spatial zoning and management of the Saba Marine Park (Netherlands Antilles, Caribbean) on coral reef communities over 21 years of MPA establishment. Results of the MPA are mixed for effects on fish density, biomass and species richness. Marginally higher biomass of certain fish species was found in no-fishing zones, but usually only in shallow habitats. Live hard coral cover declined between 1991–1995 and 2008, which may be the cause of changes in reef fish communities despite MPA regulations. Results suggest that environmental stressors and habitat loss may be symptomatic of wider trends occurring throughout the Caribbean that are beyond MPA influence.||pdf, 492k|
|Oliver, L.M. et al.||2011||Relating landscape development intensity to coral reef condition in the watersheds of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands||Mar Ecol Prog Se r 427:293-302||Coral Reef||This study relates coral reef condition to human modifications of the landscape. Stony coral community richness, cover, colony size, and density were assessed along with 3-dimensional coral cover in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, in 2006 and 2007. Land use/land cover data (LULC) and a landscape development intensity (LDI) index, an indicator of human activity calculated from the LULC data, were used to explore relationships with coral indicators. Human activity, measured by the LDI index, was negatively correlated with various indicators of coral condition, including taxa richness, colony size, and colony density. The LDI index is an effective landscape indicator of human impact on St. Croix corals, highlighting the link between land-based human activity and marine ecosystems.
The finding of a negative correlation between the watershed LDI index and coral condition indicators is consistent with expectations that higher human land-use activity adversely affects coral condition. The strength and significance of the relationships from this exploratory examination reveal a strong potential for this approach to demonstrate the cumulative effect of human watershed stressors on coral reef ecosystems.
|Oliver, T.A. and S.R. Palumbi||2011||Do fluctuating temperature environments elevate coral thermal tolerance?||Coral Reefs DOI 10.1007/s00338-011-0721-y||Coral Reef||While differences in thermal tolerance among regions with distinct annual mean temperatures were first recognized as evidence of coral thermal adaptation or acclimatization, thermal variation on much smaller spatial and temporal scales also appears to affect coral thermal tolerance. In this study, the authors measured the timing of high thermal pulses in a pair of pools in Ofu, American Samoa, and tested whether a coral population exposed to more frequent and more extreme pulses was associated with higher thermal tolerance relative to a population exposed to more moderate variation in the bleaching sensitive coral Acropora hyacinthus. The results showed that corals from the thermally variable pool, all of which hosted heat-resistant symbionts, evidenced lower mortality and less severe declines in photochemical efficiency than corals from the thermally moderate pool, regardless of symbiont type. The results highlighted the importance of monitoring multiple, potentially interacting mechanisms when considering the potential for reef corals to resist rising temperatures.||pdf, 651k|
|Pandolfi, John M. et al.||2003||Global Trajectories of the Long-Term Decline of Coral Reef Ecosystems||Science 301: 955-958||Coral Reef||This paper compiles historical records extending back several thousand years to construct a global summary (from 14 regions) of changes in seven major guilds of carnivores, herbivores, and architectural species. The time periods are divided up into cultural periods; therefore, enabling analyses of human impacts through time. Results conclude that large animals decline before either small animals or architectural species. While the trajectories of decline are similar globally, the Atlantic reefs declined before reefs in Australia and the Red Sea. The timing of declines also provides resolution to potential causes. Most importantly, this paper stresses the need for immediate action to protect coral reefs from human exploitation.||pdf, 276k|
|Pandolfi, John M. and Jeremy B. C. Jackson||2006||Ecological persistence interrupted in Caribbean coral reefs||Ecology Letters 9: 818-826||Coral Reef||Pandolfi and Jackson quantify the habitat stability in Caribbean coral communities during the Pleistocene, comparing records from several hundred thousand years ago to modern community structure. Pleistocene coral communities demonstrate persistence with similar community structure through time, including the abundance of both common and rare species. Human impacts have altered coral communities significantly beyond Pleistocene structure and long term stability. Today, the loss of major reef builders such as A. palmate have likely also had impacts on community composition. As current coral reef communities are highly anomalous from Pleistocene records, especially within the last 220 thousand years, human impacts are likely to blame for current coral reef declines in the Caribbean.||external site|
|Pandolfi, J. M. et al.||2005||Are U.S. Coral Reefs on the Slippery Slope to Slime?||Science 307: 1725-1726||Coral Reef||This article has received significant attention from researchers, managers, and the public. It is a bit controversial and the doom and gloom picture presented may or may not most accurately describe the current state of affairs. Regardless, the paper draws attention to issues of coral reef decline as part of Science’s Policy Forum. The author’s vision of how to reverse coral reef decline in the United States requires addressing multiple threats at the same time. Numerous responses to this paper are available in the 17 June 2005 Science issue (Volume 308).||pdf, 140k|
|Roff, George and Peter J. Mumby||2012||Global disparity in the resilience of coral reefs||Trends in Ecology and Evolution 408: 3-10. doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.04.007||Coral Reef||The article reviews whether current knowledge of coral reef resilience, as it has historically been researched specifically in the Caribbean region, is transferrable to Indo-Pacific coral reefs. The authors hypothesize that the Caribbean may be predisposed to low resilience, with faster rates of macroalgal growth, higher rates of algal recruitment, basin-wide iron-enrichment of algal growth from aeolian dust, a lack of acroporid corals, lower herbivore biomass and missing groups of herbivores.
This article provides evidence that these two regions differ in their ecological resilience; despite increasing coral-bleaching events and decreasing average health of Indo-Pacific reefs, many reefs continue to show trajectories of recovery while Caribbean reefs do not. The authors demonstrate with six hypotheses (broken into three categories of biodiversity, bottom-up forcing and top-down forcing) that Indo-Pacific reefs are likely to have greater resilience than those of the Caribbean.
|Sale, Peter F. et al.||2005||Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves||Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 74-80||MPA||Coastal marine fisheries are under an ever-increasing risk of collapse due to over-exploitation and human-caused degradation of coastal marine habitats and ecosystems. No-take fishery reserves can be an effective management tool to mitigate these problems. This article summarizes the most critical gaps in knowledge regarding these reserves and suggests ways to fill them. The authors suggest that gaining more knowledge regarding the dispersal of larvae, juveniles, and adult fishes is important to conservationists and fishermen. Additionally, enough larvae must remain in the reserve to sustain viable populations and larvae must also leave the reserve to sustain fisheries. The authors mention that more well-designed studies are needed to rigorously demonstrate that no-take reserves have sustained or improved nearby fishery yields. Additionally, it is suggested that we may also benefit from more research about target species to reveal practical knowledge about their mobility, life-history, and connectivity among subpopulations. Research on information about how fish-dispersal relates to water movement and habitat in reserves will help managers create no-take fishery reserves of the appropriate size, number, configuration, and habitat composition.
Adaptive management approaches will help managers understand and improve their reserves by allowing managers to meet their management goals while scientifically testing the efficacy of different management methods. Additionally, adaptive management of no-take fishery reserves can benefit managers, scientists, and the fishing community, if there is collaboration of all of these stakeholders.
|Selig, E.R. and J. F. Bruno||2010||A Global Analysis of the Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas in Preventing Coral Loss||PLoS One 5(2): e9278. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009278||Coral Reef, MPA||The authors of this paper compiled a global database of 8534 live coral surveys from 1969-2006 to compare annual changes in coral cover inside 310 MPAs to unprotected areas. The results showed that on average, coral cover within MPAs remained constant, while coral cover on unprotected reefs declined. Based on these findings, MPAs are generally effective in reducing or preventing coral loss, and the benefits of MPAs appear to increase with the number of years since MPA establishment.||pdf, 614k|
|Sotka, Erik E. and Robert W. Thacker||2005||Do some corals like it hot?||Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 59-62||Coral Reef||The Adaptive Bleaching Hypothesis is a controversial theory that states that stress resistant coral-zooxanthellae associations can develop from frequent and sever environmental stress. This hypothesis is reviewed and future directions for research are suggested. Discussions include the following topics, spatial and temporal variation in Symbiodinium, costs to Symbiodinium D due to heat tolerance, and future directions. This paper is critical reading for any MPA practitioner dealing with coral reef persistence as coral-Symbiodinium interactions impact reef resilience.||pdf, 148k|
|US Environmental Protection Agency||2009||Heeding a call to action—US coral reefs: The untapped potential of the Clean Water Act.||Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 1421-1423||Coral Reef||This editorial, by the US Environmental Protection Agency, calls attention to the Clean Water Act (CWA), which can provide an opportunity to incorporate scientific knowledge into the management of coral reefs in for US waters. While MPAs are the dominant approach to coral reef protection, there is recognition that areas outside of MPAs must be monitored, protected, and restored. The authors propose that the CWA can be used for this purpose. The CWA provides a mandate to “restore and maintain the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters”, which includes all territorial seas within three miles of land (Secs.101 and 502). Although often perceived and interpreted as only a tool to address end-of-pipe contaminants, the CWA provides a regulatory framework that can potentially support protection of coral reefs. The key to engage the CWA to protect coastal resources, as indicated by the authors, is to formally document what is known about the condition and incorporate the knowledge into regulatory and reporting processes.|
|Varkey, Divya et al.||2012||Modelling Reef Fish Population Responses to Fisheries
Restrictions in Marine Protected Areas in the Coral Triangle
|Journal of Marine Biology Volume 2012, Article ID 721483, doi:10.1155/2012/721483||MPA||This study used marine ecosystem models (Ecopath, Ecosim, and Ecospace modeling software) to assess MPA effectiveness in Raja Ampat, Indonesia. The authors took field data from this site in the heart of the Coral Triangle and found many trade-offs between MPAs that were designated no-take zones, and those that allowed some fisheries to operate. Rapid rebuilding of reef fish populations require no-take zones.||pdf, 3.5M|
|Veron, J.E.N. et al.||2009||The coral reef crisis: The critical importance of <350 ppm CO2||Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 1428-1436||Coral Reef||The authors of this paper outline the grim state and future of coral reef ecosystems, and the consequential domino effects to follow for other systems associated with reefs. Mass bleaching and mortality are identified as the current crisis to corals, and based on the current rate of increase in global CO2 emissions (now exceeding 3% per year), most reefs world-wide are committed to an irreversible decline. Three issues of importance to the future of coral reefs are highlighted: (1) the role of multiple stressors and synergies; including sea level rise, storm impacts, fisheries impacts, water quality, and biotic responses, (2) the nature of resilience, and (3) the importance of domino effects. While the outlook for reefs in the fact of today’s rapid global warming is exceptionally serious, the authors provide remedial options for management interventions that will increase reef resilience, including: a) reduce the harvest of herbivorous fish to sustainable levels, b) protect sharks and other top predators, c) manage all aspects of water quality, and d) diminish direct anthropogenic impacts and stressors.||external site|
|Wilkinson, Clive et al.||2003||Monitoring Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas||ISBN 0 642 32228 7||MPA||A practical guide on how monitoring can support effective management of MPAs. Produced by the Australian Institute of Marine Science and IUCN Global Marine Program, this publication provides seventeen case studies and information on monitoring methods.||pdf, 4,723k|
|2006||The 2nd Annual Coral Reef Conservation and Management Conference||Miami, Florida||Coral Reef||This document provides a written summary of the talks presented. The summaries are organized chronologically with a paragraph describing each speaker. Powerpoint slides of the presentations are not available to the general public. Please contact the speakers themselves with further questions regarding their talks.||pdf, 28k|