Monitoring & Evaluation
In addition to monitoring techniques that assess transplanted coral fragments, projects with added substrates benefit from economic and cost analyses that evaluate return on investment. These include costs such as building structures, putting structures in place, and maintaining structures. Returns include ecological restoration and ecosystem service targets. ref Monitoring protocols should align closely with the objectives of the project. For example, projects centered on restoring reefs for coastal protection should monitor wave energy on shore, erosion rates, and coastal impacts/damages due to storms.
The opens in a new windowWorld Bank 2016 Reportopens PDF file provides guidance on approaches to estimate the coastal protection benefits provided by natural and artificial coral reefs. These approaches are adapted engineering projects and can be undertaken for other habitats (like mangroves) or any kind of infrastructure. There are 5 main steps that will estimate coastal protection benefits:
- Estimate offshore hydrodynamics
- Estimate nearshore hydrodynamics
- Estimate effects of coastal structures (habitat) on hydrodynamics
- Estimate flooding or erosion
- Assess expected and averted damage (value coastal protection services)
Page 14 of the World Bank Report provides in-depth explanations for each of these steps.
Coral restoration projects with substrate structures can also greatly benefit from decades of research on oyster reef restoration. Oyster reef restoration projects also use structures to enhance biological processes (such as fisheries production) and ecosystem services (such as coastal protection). Thus, this is a direct analog to newer coral reef structural restoration. Several research articles and manuals provide information on monitoring oyster reefs:
- opens in a new windowOyster Habitat Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Handbookopens PDF file
- Effective Monitoring to Evaluate Ecological Restoration in the Gulf of Mexico ( opens in a new windowBook); Oyster Reef Restoration Monitoring ( opens in a new windowChapter)
- opens in a new windowOyster Monitoring, NOAA's Monitoring of Coastal Habitats