Ecological resilience refers to the ability of an ecosystem to maintain key functions and processes in the face of stresses or pressures, by resisting and then adapting to change. ref Resilient ecosystems are characterized as adaptable, flexible, and able to deal with change and uncertainty. ref
Building resilience into an ecosystem means working to support the health and function of associated habitats, organisms, and ecosystem processes. The ecological processes that maintain reef function and support thriving reef communities play an important role in maintaining resilience to major disturbances. Complex food-web interactions (e.g., herbivory, trophic cascades), reproductive cycles, population connectivity, and recruitment are key ecological processes that support the resilience of ecosystems like coral reefs.
Ecological systems that are resilient often use a diverse set of strategies and methods for coping with and adapting to change. For ecological systems, biodiversity and functional redundancy can help the ecosystem be more resilient to environmental changes. For example, reef communities with functional redundancy may have a better chance of recovery if a species is lost from a functional group. Therefore, monitoring and managing functional groups, such as herbivorous fishes, can play a critical role in facilitating reef recovery following a large-scale disturbance. In social systems, management of resources and governance systems can enhance resilience by diversifying patterns of resource use and encouraging alternative livelihoods. ref See the following sections on Coral Reef Resilience and Management Strategies for more information on managing coral reef ecosystems to support resilience.