A monitoring plan can also help managers determine what type of a monitoring program should be implemented. Below are three different types of monitoring programs:
Routine monitoring is often used by coral reef managers to monitor the state of the reef through time, allowing them to establish baselines and detect changes. Examples of widely used routine monitoring programs include those developed by the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) and the Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA).
Responsive monitoring is used by managers to complement a routine monitoring program when reefs are impacted by acute disturbances such as bleaching, storm damage, ship groundings, and disease outbreaks. Managers often need to know the extent and severity of these acute impacts as soon after they occur. Responsive monitoring helps to ensure timely and credible communication with stakeholders and helps target management actions which support recovery. Developing a responsive monitoring program follows the same steps presented in the Designing a Monitoring Plan section, however decisions in each of these steps should be guided by the type and severity of the impact(s).
Participatory monitoring programs involve non-expert observers – sometimes called citizen scientists – in monitoring activities. These monitoring activities may be led by scientists or managers or have observers monitoring reefs independently. Coral reef managers often use participatory monitoring programs to assess reef condition, disturbance detection, impact assessment following disturbances, and assessments of the effectiveness of management actions. Examples of participatory monitoring include the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Eye on the Reef Program and the Eyes of the Reef Hawaii Program.
Methods for Ecological Monitoring of Coral Reefs
Coral Bleaching Risk and Impact Assessment Plan
Hawaii’s Rapid Response Contingency Plan for Events of Coral Bleaching, Disease or Crown-of-thorns Starfish Outbreaks
Coral Disease Outbreak and Unusual Mortality Event Response Program
Participatory Monitoring of Shallow Tropical Marine Fisheries by Artisanal Fishers in Diani, Kenya
SCUBA Divers above the Waterline: Using Participatory Mapping of Coral Reef Conditions to Inform Reef Management